East and West questions | Baiyun Xiang: How does archaeological research witness the Cultural exchanges between China and Japan?
China News Service, Beijing, April 7Title: Baiyun Xiang: How do archaeological studies witness the cultural exchanges between China and Japan?China News Service reporter Sun Zifa from rice farming to bronze and iron spread east to the Japanese islands, from Xu Fu rate of three thousand boys and girls across the sea to Jianzhen eastward crossing, from the Tang Envoy to study in Datang to fight against the epidemic “mountains and rivers in different lands, wind and moon in the same day”…The exchanges between China and Japan have always attracted much attention.The year 2022 marks the 50th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations.From the perspective of archaeology, what are the important stages of ancient exchanges between China and Japan?What far-reaching impact has it had?What joint research and achievements have the two sides made in archaeology over the past 50 years?Baiyun Xiang, former deputy director of the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, professor at Shandong University and renowned archaeologist in Both China and Japan, has long been committed to promoting sino-Japanese archaeological exchanges and cooperation, and has led a number of sino-Japanese archaeological cooperative research projects.In a recent interview with China News Service in Beijing, he explained in detail how archaeological research bears witness to the long history of Cultural exchanges between China and Japan.China News Service: According to current archaeological research, when can cultural exchanges between China and Japan be traced back to?What important stages did the ancient exchanges between the two countries go through?Baiyun Xiang: The cultural exchanges between China and Japan can be traced back to ancient times, but the real exchanges began about 2,500 years ago. That is, from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD, When China entered the Warring States, Qin and Han Dynasties and Japan entered the Yayoi Era, the exchanges between the two countries gradually developed.In the past 800 years, according to the archaeological findings, especially the cultural relics imported from China found in The Japanese islands, the exchanges between China and the Japanese islands went through five stages of development against the background of great social and historical changes, upheavals and developments in East Asia. The modes, contents and nature of the exchanges in each stage were also different.The first stage, roughly from the 5th century BC to the end of the 4th century BC, is mainly the spread of rice farming techniques from China to the Japanese islands.The second stage is roughly from the end of the 4th century TO the beginning of the 3rd century to 221 BC, when the rice-farming culture continued to spread eastward, Chinese bronzes and iron products began to spread to the Japanese islands.In the third stage, around 221 BC to 108 BC, Chinese residents migrated eastward to the Japanese islands, and more Chinese products, such as bronze swords, coins, mirrors and iron products, were introduced to Japan.The fourth stage is roughly around 108 BC to AD, when a variety of Chinese goods were introduced into The Japanese islands, some ancient countries in the Japanese islands began to send emissaries to the Han Dynasty, and initially established official exchanges and contacts with each other.In the fifth stage, from the beginning of the 1st century to the first half of the 3rd century, the connection between the Han Dynasty and the Japanese islands became closer. Some ancient countries in the Japanese islands may really enter the imperial enthronement system of the Han Dynasty, and the influence of the Han culture reached the central part of the Japanese islands.China News Service: How did China and Japan communicate in ancient times?What are the important influences of the introduction of Chinese culture on Japan?Baiyunxiang: There are many routes for exchanges and cultural exchanges between China and Japan, but the maritime exchange route around the Yellow Sea is the most important.Specifically, it is the “land/waterway around the Yellow Sea” that starts from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China, passes through the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea in eastern China, Shandong Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula and Korean Peninsula successively, and then crosses the sea to the northern part of Kyushu in Japan. In fact, it is also the gradual eastward spread of Chinese rice-farming culture.For this reason, the Yayoi culture of The Japanese islands, especially kyushu, was most closely related to the culture of the Warring States, Qin and Han dynasties in the coastal areas around the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.The spread of Chinese culture to The Japanese islands was not limited to cultural exchanges, but played an important role in the cultural and social development of The Yayoi Era in Japan. In the field of social production and technology, the introduction and gradual development of rice farming technology made The Local Japanese gradually enter the farming society.With the introduction of Bronze, iron and casting technology from China, Japan gradually entered the age of metal ware from the middle yayoi period in the 2nd century BC.At the same time, under the direct or indirect influence of Chinese culture, the Japanese archipelago also witnessed the appearance of such cultural phenomena as the circular trench settlements, the stone tomb, the urn tomb, the earth khouang tomb, the square circular trench tomb and the tomb mound tomb.China News Service: There were close exchanges between China and Japan in ancient times, and ancient China had a far-reaching and extensive influence on Japanese culture. Could you please give specific examples from your archaeological research?Bai Yunxiang: China and Japan are neighbors separated only by a strip of water. Japan’s history and culture are inextricably linked with China’s.Ancient Japanese rice farming, bronze culture, iron culture, writing, urban culture, funeral culture…All are directly or indirectly influenced by China.Han Dynasty relics are widely found in Yayoi cultural remains in Japan.According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 80 Yayoi cultural sites and tombs unearthed from the Han Dynasty in The Japanese archipelago, distributed in the western areas of Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, especially in the northern part of Kyushu.Restoration of the residential site of Dunlu, Japan.For example, located between the Korean Peninsula and Japan’s Kyushu island on the sea passage of the Original Tsuji site in Iki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, is a platform site surrounded by three trenches, unearthed han dynasty cultural relics have bronze mirrors, chariots and horses, swords, arrowhead, right and other bronze, goods spring, Big spring fifty coins and iron axes, etc.It is generally believed that the site is the duyi site of “One kingdom” in the annals of The Three Kingdoms · The Book of Wei.The han dynasty relics unearthed in Japan mainly include gold seals, coins, bronze mirrors, iron ware and other cultural relics. One of them, a square gold seal with a snake-knot found on Shiga Island in Fukuoka City, has the characters “King of Hanvino” carved on its face.Coins are mainly half two coins, five baht coins, goods spring, big spring fifty and goods cloth.Bronze mirrors are the cultural relics of the Han Dynasty that have been found in the most places and unearthed in the largest number. So far, about 250 complete pieces and 270 pieces of fragments have been found, including western Han Mirrors, Xinmang mirrors and Eastern Han mirrors. Almost all the main types of mirrors of the Han Dynasty have been found.The main iron tools are axes, gels, forks, knives, swords, spears and so on.Other han dynasty artifacts include bronze arrowheads, bronze swords, bronze bow caps, bronze four-leaf ornaments and glass bi.Archaeologists unearthed a han Dynasty bronze mirror in 2021 at a large western Han Dynasty cemetery in Xianyang city, Shaanxi Province.The mirror (bronze mirror), sword (iron sword) and jade (jade ware), known as the “three treasures” of ancient Japan, all originated in China.Among them, five super-large “eight-leaf jointed mirror with arc” unearthed from tomb No. 1 of Fukuoka Plain Village in Japan not only have the general characteristics of yunlei jointed mirror with arc in the Eastern Han Dynasty, but also have distinct characteristics of their own, Chinese and Japanese archaeologists speculated that the artisans of the Eastern Han Dynasty bronze mirror went to Japan to design and make it locally.Another example was the close relationship between China and Japan in the Tang Dynasty, and the tang culture had an important influence on Japanese culture.For example, the design and construction of Pingchengjing, the capital of Nara, were directly influenced by Chang ‘an and Luoyang in the Sui and Tang Dynasties.The Tang Zhaoti Temple built for Monk Jianzhen is still preserved. Some other temples are also directly influenced by the shape and structure of the Tang temples.The takamatsuka ancient tomb of the 7th and 8th centuries found in Nara, the murals in the tomb are similar to those in the Tomb of the Tang Dynasty, which shows its influence.As the courtyard where todaiji Masakura is located in the Nara era, the Masakura house houses the relics of Emperor Seibu of the Nara era and other important cultural relics, many of which are from the Tang dynasty and are very valuable.In 2019, a number of artists from China, South Korea and Japan staged a concert of restored Musical Instruments from Zhengcangwon, a World Cultural heritage site, in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province.China News Service: The year 2022 marks the 50th anniversary of the normalization of China-Japan diplomatic relations. In the past 50 years, what exchanges and cooperation projects have China and Japan focused on in the field of archaeological excavation?What’s the overall progress?How do you comment on china-japan archaeological exchanges and cooperation?Bai Yunxiang: the normalization of china-japan diplomatic relations over the past 50 years, archaeological academic exchanges and cooperation between the two countries, roughly speaking, there are three types, or three aspects: one is the sino-japanese scholars all kinds, all levels of exchanges and visits, such as the degree of Thurber students, as well as an academic visit sino-japanese scholars to other countries and visit, etc.Many research institutions and universities of China and Japan have signed cooperation and exchange agreements, such as the Institute of Archaeology of The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the National Institute of Cultural Properties of Nara and the National Museum of Historical Folklore of Japan.Most of the exchanges and cooperation between Chinese provinces and cities and Japanese sister cities include archaeology, such as Shandong province and Yamaguchi Prefecture, Shaanxi Province and Nara Prefecture, and Xi ‘an city and Nara City.These exchanges between personnel and institutions have laid an important foundation for academic exchanges and cooperation between China and Japan, including archaeology.Professor Baiyun Xiang (left) talks with excavators at the archaeological excavation site in Porochi, Chitage city, Hokkaido, Japan.The second picture is about the sino-Japanese cooperation in archaeological excavations and research. Although the number is small, it is of great significance and great influence.For example, from 1997 to 2001, China and Japan cooperated in the excavation and research of guigong Ruins in Chang ‘an City of han Dynasty.2001-2006, Sino-Japanese joint excavation and research of Taiye Pond Site in Daming Palace of Chang ‘an City of Tang Dynasty;2008-2011: Sino-Japanese joint investigation, excavation and research on the ruins of The Han and Wei Dynasties in Luoyang;Investigation, excavation and research of Minfengniya site in Xinjiang in Sino-Japanese cooperation;Sino-japanese cooperation in the excavation and research of northern Zhou Tombs in Guyuan, Ningxia.An exhibition titled niya, Archaeology and Story — The 30th Anniversary Of Niya Archaeology between China and Japan held by Xinjiang Museum in 2018 attracts visitors.The third is the sino-Japanese cooperation thematic archaeology research, the number is large, the research field is wide.For example, from 2003 to 2005, China and Japan cooperated on neolithic domestic pig research in Inner Mongolia;2004-2005, Sino-Japanese carbon dating Research Project;2004-2006, Sino-Japanese cooperation “Archaeological Research on han Dynasty mirror Pattern in Linzi, Shandong Province”;Shandong University and Kyushu University jointly carried out “a comprehensive study on rice farming and its Eastward spread in Shandong Peninsula region”.Professor Baiyun Xiang (first from left) communicated with Japanese scholars Fumigori Sugani and Naoto Goto during the investigation of the ancient city of Qi in Linzi, Shandong province.Most of these sino-Japanese archaeological cooperation projects are progressing smoothly and achieving fruitful results.As an important part of sino-foreign archaeological cooperation and exchange, sino-Japanese archaeological cooperation and exchange has an early start, a wide range, multiple levels and many achievements. It plays an important role in sino-Japanese scientific and cultural exchanges and plays an important role in the friendly exchanges between China and Japan. It is also an important way for Chinese scholarship and Chinese culture to go to the world.During the implementation of the joint research and archaeology project, the participants and institutions of China and Japan are equal and friendly, abide by the agreement and conduct friendly consultations when problems arise.Japanese scholars’ earnest, meticulous and hard-working dedication, research spirit and scientific spirit of seeking truth are appreciated by Chinese collaborators and worthy of learning from their counterparts in the academic world.China News Service: In 2022, China’s modern archaeology, which has gone through a century of vicissitudes, will enter a new century and the normalization of China-japan diplomatic relations will mark the 50th anniversary.Standing at this historical juncture, what is your expectation of china-japan archaeological exchanges and cooperation in the future?Baiyun Xiang: In fact, the exchanges between the archaeological circles of China and Japan started as early as the 1950s. In 1957, a Japanese archaeological delegation visited China and developed rapidly after the normalization of china-japan diplomatic relations.In the past 50 years, the exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and Japanese archaeological circles have made great progress.Standing at the historical juncture of the new century of Chinese archaeology and the 50th anniversary of the normalization of China-japan diplomatic relations, we hope that the exchanges and cooperation between The Chinese and Japanese archaeological circles will persist, develop and deepen under the new historical conditions, and constantly open up new fields and make new progress.This will not only contribute to the development of archaeology between China and Japan, but also play a positive role in the friendly exchanges between the two countries.(End) Introduction: Professor Baiyun Xiang shows and introduces the Japanese version of Mirror Fan, a research result of Sino-Japanese archaeological cooperation, in Beijing office.China news agency reporters Sun Zifa Bai Yunxiang, former deputy director of the institute of archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher, graduate school of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, professor, doctoral supervisor, shandong university professor professors, enjoy special government allowances of the State Council, the German archaeological institute of communication academician, standing director of Chinese archaeology, the director of professional committee of qin and han dynasties archaeology,Vice president of Chinese History Research Society of Qin and Han Dynasties, vice president of Asian Foundry Technology History Society.Professor Baiyunxiang has long been engaged in field archaeology, editing and publishing academic journals, archaeological research, teaching and organization. His main research fields include Archaeology of Qin and Han Dynasties, archaeology of handicraft industry, archaeology of sino-foreign exchange, etc. He has published more than 130 academic works at home and abroad.His main works and award-winning achievements include: Archaeological Research on Iron Ware of Pre-Qin and Han Dynasties (2005), Research on Iron Ware of Ancient China (Japanese version, 2009). In 2010, he won the first prize of the 7th Outstanding Scientific Research Achievement Award of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.”Archaeological Research on the Mirror Fan of Han Dynasty in Linzi, Shandong Province” (co-authored in 2007), won the first prize of “Shandong Province Culture, Art and Science Outstanding Achievement Award” in 2009;Chinese Archaeology · Qin and Han Volume (co-authored in 2010), second Prize of the Fourth Guo Moruo Prize for Chinese History in 2012;”On the Two Trips to The East of Ancient Chinese Bronze Craftsmen from the Perspective of The Bronze Swords in Sanglin-ri, South Korea and the Bronze Mirrors in Plain Village, Japan” (paper, 2015), won the third prize of the 10th Outstanding Scientific Research Achievement Award of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2019;Archaeology of Qin and Han Dynasties and Studies of Qin and Han Civilizations (2019) has been awarded as one of the top 10 Books of National Cultural Heritage in 2019.Among them, the research achievements of Sino-Japanese cooperation as the Chinese host: Archaeological Research on Mirror Fan of Han Dynasty in Linzi, Shandong Province (2007);Hanoi Mirror Building Technology (Japanese Version, 2009);Research on Early Chinese Bronze Culture (Japanese edition, 2009).