The East Asian strategy of American control of Eurasian land power: Roosevelt supported China, Truman relied heavily on Japan

2022-05-27 0 By

As mentioned earlier, it was the First and second World Wars that really knocked Britain out of the top spot.The United States, rich in war money, increased its strength and took over the flag of world hegemony.Stimulated by The second World War, the US economy soared and industrial capacity reached its peak.In 1945, the US economy ranked first in the world, accounting for 56% of the world’s GDP, more than 40% of the world’s industrial output, and 75% of the world’s gold reserves.Take steel and oil for example. The United States accounts for 63.92% of the world’s steel production and more than 70% of the world’s oil production.American goods flooded the world, and American world War II leftovers lasted for years after the war.The United States was the real economic and industrial juggler of the time, and all of Europe together was no match for the United States because the whole of Europe was smashed.Ironically, the whole of Europe depended on the United States to protect it, as a flood of Soviet steel crushed the mighty German army and left Europe shivering.The Soviet Union had a huge territory across the Eurasian continent, and all the countries in Eastern Europe had become a member of the Warsaw Pact Group. In order to maintain its market and political territory, the United States had to focus on Europe and set up NATO to compete.In East Asia, Roosevelt regarded China as his strategic fulcrum in order to counter the expansion of the Soviet Union.Roosevelt believed that the first task after the war was to prevent the revival of Japanese militarism.At this time, other Asian countries were not yet independent and could not play a stabilizing role similar to China’s and could balance the postwar expansion of Soviet power in East Asia.The United States also regards East Asia as a huge and potential market and needs to fully intervene in east Asian affairs to ensure security, stability and openness in the region.So the pro-American Chiang Kai-shek government became Roosevelt’s key ally.In order to promote China’s international status, On the eve of the Cairo Conference, Roosevelt persuaded Winston Churchill of Britain and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union to raise China to the status of the international “big four”.Roosevelt even invited Chiang Kai-shek to raise an army and station it in Japan, and envisioned the trusteeship of Okinawa island to the Chinese government.English edition of the United States Diplomatic Archives and the Republic of China Diplomatic Records on the Cairo Conference.President Roosevelt brought up the Ryukyu issue and asked more than once whether China had claimed ryukyu.The chairman replied that China would agree to a joint sino-US occupation of ryukyu and eventually participate in a joint administrative body between the two countries commissioned by an international organization.Whether it was Roosevelt’s temptation or not, Chiang kai-shek was clearly not confident and did not accept the olive branch, which shows Roosevelt’s great trust in the National government.On the eve of the Cairo conference, Roosevelt and the American military had suggested to Chiang that they discuss training and equipping 90 Chinese divisions under the Lend-lease act.Centering on the policy focus of supporting China, during World War II, the United States gave a lot of aid and support to China’s War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, and sent aircraft to protect southwest China. The flying Tigers led by Chennault fought life-and-death with The Japanese army.After Japan’s surrender, the United States helped Chiang kai-shek move troops on a large scale, occupy major military passes and cities, and strengthen Chiang’s army, navy, and air force by sending military advisers.In June 1946, the United States Congress passed the Military Assistance To China Act, announcing that the United States would provide $51.7 million in “replenishing” equipment to the Nationalist government.On August 31, 1946, the United States and the Nationalist government signed the Agreement on the Sale of Wartime Surplus Materials between China and The United States. The United States sold the materials stored in India, China and 17 islands in the Pacific Ocean at the low price of 175 million DOLLARS to China.According to statistics, from the end of the Anti-Japanese War to June 1946, the United States provided 1.355 billion DOLLARS of war materials to the Nationalist government, equipped 45 divisions of the Kuomintang army and trained 150,000 military personnel of various kinds.Therefore, Roosevelt’s East Asia policy is summarized as follows: 1. The purpose of supporting China is to treat China as a future dumping market for American industrial products.He believed that China was bound to rise in the future, with a vast territory, a great civilization, 400 million people and abundant resources, and it was in the long-term interest of the United States to support China.Second, to monitor and weaken Japan’s national strength.Japan is not allowed to rebuild its military for 25 years, even if it is defensive in nature.Japan’s industrial assets were either demolished or transferred by the US military, and it can be said that the post-war Japanese people’s livelihood was further devastated.Roosevelt’s move was to prevent the revival of Japanese militarism and thus threaten the interests of the United States in the Pacific.Instead, he sees China as peace-loving and its foreign policy as defensive.Third, build China into a bridgehead to prevent the Expansion of the Soviet Union southward.Roosevelt also wanted to learn from Europe’s experience and build strong military bases in China.By August 1945, with the help of the United States, the PLA had formed a total of 13 Armed American armies and 39 armed American divisions, almost all of which had reached full strength.In short, Roosevelt’s purpose was to guide China to follow the global strategic goals of the United States and identify with the international order led by the United States with the help of the Sino-American alliance, so as to become the support axis and center of the East Asia policy of the United States in the postwar world order arrangement.However, President Roosevelt died suddenly in 1945, never seeing the Kuomintang army he had worked so hard to support crumbled under the attack of the People’s Liberation Army.Incoming President Harry Truman, helpless to see American interests, was ruthlessly driven out of the country by the PLA.After liberation, Chairman MAO declared to confiscate all the comprador assets of Chiang dynasty and the assets of foreigners in China, and abolished the obligation of foreign debt repayment and the unequal treaties of foreigners in China.At this time, Chairman MAO declared that his foreign policy was in favor of the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union began to aid China in construction.The Truman administration could not continue to implement Roosevelt’s established policy in East Asia.When China entered the Korean War in 1950, relations between The United States and China were sharply strained, with the United States sending warships to the Taiwan Strait to prevent China from liberating the island.Truman’s East Asia policy after the transformation is as follows: 1. Korea enters the war.To protect Korea from falling into the Soviet union’s sphere of influence and thereby preventing the loss of Japanese control.After three years of war, China and the United States drew to a draw, with the 38th armistice line as their respective areas of influence, South Korea was controlled by the United States, still stationed tens of thousands of American troops.Second, change the policy of weakening Japan.Turn Japan into the fulcrum country of America’s East Asia strategy, and rank Japan as one of the world’s five major industrial powers.U.S. Secretary of State Richard Acheson called West Germany and Japan the world’s two great processors.The Korean War avoided the dismantling of Japanese industry and turned it into a logistical base for the U.S. military.Since then, China and Japan have changed their roles in the eyes of the United States.Third, contain China’s rise.The Truman administration did not give diplomatic recognition to the victory of the Chinese revolution.After the Korean War, the United States increased military, diplomatic and economic sanctions against China, and even openly threatened to use atomic bombs against China.Based on the above strategy, the focus of the Truman Administration’s East Asia policy gradually shifted to:Japan was built as the fulcrum and base axis of America’s containment system in East Asia, and it began to build the first island chain defense line around the East Asian continent with Japan as the center, so as to serve the global strategic goal of containing the expansion of the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, China’s position in America’s East Asia strategy was correspondingly constantly weakened or even contained.It was also from Truman that his East Asia policy set the tone of America’s China policy.The first island chain from Japan to the Philippines is a defensive front that the United States must defend.Later, the second island chain strategy was derived, and several military bases were built around these two island chains, with the intention of containing China’s military power in shallow sea areas and preventing it from developing into the Pacific and Indian Oceans.The U.S. strategy in East Asia was a blessing in disguise for two countries-South Korea and Japan. The U.S. punished only major Japanese war criminals and skipped the others. U.S. Pacific Commander General Douglas MacArthur also gave up direct rule over Japan and supported the Japanese emperor’s indirect rule.The industrial systems of Japan and South Korea, stimulated by the Korean War, were restored, and the United States abandoned its hostile policy toward Japan and drew them into the western camp. Western markets were opened to them, leading to the rapid rise of Japan and South Korea, especially as Japan soon became an economic power second only to the United States.The strategic transformation of East Asia from Roosevelt to Truman profoundly changed the geopolitical pattern of East Asia.First, the establishment of the US-Japan-Rok anti-China alliance.Putting Japan and South Korea in the front line of containing China and establishing many military bases on their territory is a direct threat to our security.Two, hinder my liberation of Taiwan.Delayed the pace of China’s revival, so far Taiwan has not been unified, involved in China’s development of a large number of resources and energy.Third, the construction of a half-moon military encirclement of Our country.It will have a profound impact on China’s sovereignty and security along the coast and even in the South China Sea, where the US military is still sailing with military might.Fourth, split the atmosphere of unity in Asia.Forcing Japan, South Korea and other countries to impose blockade and embargo on China and setting up a China group at the Coordinating Committee in Paris is to comprehensively strangle new China militarily, economically and technologically.Therefore, the Truman Doctrine and its East Asia strategic policy have become the cornerstone of the subsequent US administration’s China policy. For decades, the policies have been unchanged, but with the development of the international situation, they have been loosened and tightened to serve the interests of the US.—- to be continued — Next section: The East Asian Strategy of THE United States controlling land power in Europe and Asia: The Triangle relationship between The United States and the Soviet Union in the middle and late Period of the Cold War