Chen Zhenlian: “Thirteen Products of Stone Gate” and “Three Ode” of Han Cliff

2022-05-11 0 By

Calligraphy has the south post north tablet said, the north tablet roughly divided into four categories: tablet, epitaph, cliff, statue.In the Official script of the Han and Han dynasties, there are only tablet tablets and cliffs, but no epitaphs and statues.So we speak of tablet science, usually refers to the northern Wei tablet (the largest number) and specifically called “Wei tablet”, but mostly not earlier “Han tablet”.”Wei Bei” refers to the regular script tablet, “Han bei” refers to the Official script tablet;According to the theory of the Han dynasty before the Northern Wei dynasty, we should trace the origin of stone carving culture, from the occasional appearance of qin stone carving to the emergence of hundreds of eastern Han official script inscriptions, tablet science should have started from the Han Dynasty.But calligraphic history experts still do not consider this option, even if only the eastern Han official script tablets handed down more than 400 kinds of worth it.The reason why there is no epitaph in “Han Tablet” is that in the 400 years of the Han Dynasty, stone tablets were just emerging, which was still a new thing loved by everyone.Hundreds of years of breeding wind, not to mention later in the Han Dynasty, cao Cao of The Three Kingdoms to quit luxury tide under the ban monument order.The shape of the epitaph is precisely because of the forbidden tablet.The stone inscriptions praising the virtues could not be erected on the surface of the earth, but could only be buried in underground burial chambers for the inspection of later generations.Hence the special distinction between epitaphs and tablets.Han dynasty neither forbidden monument move, of course, can not stimulate the epitaph this stone shape system style.As for “Han bei” why there is no stone sculpture record?At that time, Buddhism had not yet or just entered China and had not yet become a popular trend. It was impossible for the Han Dynasty to choose carving Buddha statues to pray for the boundless Buddhism of the family and country in this future life.Therefore, there is no record of statues, because there was no religious soil for Buddhism to enter China at that time.Think carefully, this kind of causal phase system, in principle is very normal.In this way, at least from a certain aspect: han tablet is the beginning of stone carving culture and scale of the era, there are [inscription], there are [cliff], the basic pattern has been;The Wei tablet is in the tablet version of the cliff, more [epitaph], [statue] two kinds, the bigger the base plate and hongfu, tablet and into “learning”, is here.Inscription researchers, countless, too numerous to enumerate.In particular, hundreds of official script tablets in the Eastern Han Dynasty are a great treasure.The cliff research is relatively weak.Han Cliff stone, the earliest when the Western Han dynasty stone, then there is no tablet.Famous as “Huo Qubing tomb left kung stone”, as “court officials in advanced fantasy”, “Laizi Hou stone”, “Five phoenix two years stone”, “Yang Liang buy mountain memory stone” and so on, the number is very few.Some stone is not tablet, but the shape of the square, neat wall, we will be regarded as the tablet and no longer subdivision;Some place themselves on the cliff, more than “stele version” of the system hongda many and free and unrestrained, “on its mountain and chisel” (Feng Yunpeng “Stone cable”);So special to “cliff” named to another category.Ma Heng, famous master of gold and stone, president of the second generation Xiling Seal Society, said in his book “Fan Will zhai Jin Shi Cong” : “Stone carving is called stone sculpture, natural stone cliff”.Check today, Shaanxi, Gansu, Lu, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, cloud, Fujian, there are large cliff calligraphy stone carvings.– and “Shimen 13 products” is the first generation of classic.Located in Hedongdian Town, Hantai District, Hanzhong City, Shaanxi Province, The Hanzhong Shimen Cliff carvings group consists of baoxidao relic site, Shimen relic Site and Shimen stone carvings, which is a model of cliff carvings in the early Han Dynasty.Shimen Tunnel on the Baoshan Ramp is the earliest man-made tunnel in China, measuring 4.4 meters wide and 16.5 meters long.On the stone walls inside and outside shimen tunnel, there have been 104 cliff inscriptions since the Eastern Han Dynasty.There are 34 kinds of stone carvings on the inner wall of shimen Tunnel.Is particularly famous, and in the classic Chinese calligraphy, in addition to 1 “shimen cliff” for the title, 2 the hanzhong satrap 鄐 jun opened or ramps carved stone “, 3 “so the qianwei ancient nationalities Yang Junsong, shek mun song, 4” sign Yang Huai • Yang Bi submission “, 5 “right out cliff”, cheng Li Juntong pavilion, northern wei dynasty stone inscription, 6, 7 “the cliff jade basin”, 8 “and cliff”,19 “neither snow cliff”, The Three Kingdoms 10 w bract tong ge li tao cliff, 11 song “鄐 jun opened or ramps cliff, 12 song” shih Pan Zongbo, Han Zhongyuan, bract tong ge li tao title cliff “, 13 song “rebuild was weir completion”. On the engraved with eight han, three kingdoms, cao wei and the northern wei dynasty one each of the northern and southern dynasties, song dynasty stone carving official script, three to ten doctrine.From the history of regional calligraphy:Especially to the theme for the description of moya praise praise oblique repair tong Plug merit of the Han and Wei Moya five, as the core.”Shimen ten doctrine of” home, connect the guanzhong plain in shaanxi province is the eastern han dynasty to hanzhong region or ramps key points at the southern end of the tunnel, entire section plank road 250 kilometers, and across the qinling natural barrier, south of bashan, linking the north and south of arteries; or a number for it devilishly hard to “intones difficult,” intones one of an important component.From the sixth year of Yongping (66) of Emperor Mingdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty, in order to change the passage obstacle of Qipan Mountain in Hanzhong, it was decided to dig the mountain with stones, open the road, and build a smooth artificial tunnel for vehicles to pass without chiseling marks.5, In order to commemorate this can be said to be the world class project 5, 5, opened at the time of hanzhong taiyuan taiyuan tunnel opened history of chisel carved in the cliff, this is the most famous “Hanzhong taiyuan opened ramp cliff cliff cliff stone”.In the northern Song Dynasty, Ouyang Xiu’s “Ji Gu Lu”, Zhao Mingcheng’s “Jin Shi Lu”, Hong Shi’s “Li Shi”, etc., have also written many records on Shimen Cliff. It can be said that shimen cliff and other products constitute an integral part of the first generation of achievements in the rise of jin Shi in the Song Dynasty.In the second prosperous period of the Qing Dynasty, there were continuous accounts of the stone carvings of Shimen Cliff by Bi Yuan, Guanzhong Stone Records, Guanzhong Historical Sites, Wang Chang, Qian Daxin, Qianyan Tang Stone Writing On The End of the Annotations, Lu Zengxiang, Ba Qiongshi Stone correction, etc.Since modern times, Yang Shoujing, Kang Youwei and Yu Youren have given high praise to Shimen 13 Products, especially when Yang Shoujing went to Japan at the beginning of Guangxu dynasty and brought rubbings of “Shimen 13 Products” to Japan, which caused great repercussions in the Japanese bookdoing circle in the Meiji period.So far, Japanese calligraphic scholars have paid more attention to, collected and appreciated stone Carvings of Opening the Slanting Way of Praise and Ode to Shimen, etc., which should also be due to Yang Shoujing’s recommendation in that year. [Part 2] The story of “Thirteen Products of Shimen” has added new topics in nearly 50 years.In June 1969, because the country called for water conservancy, shek mun, plans to build the reservoir, the dam was built in the land of the shek mun under some 50 meters. The dam, and also to build a temporary dam for truncated rivers, digging. Pilot drift is more XiuBa also takes up the stone, is near shek mun. And water flooded reservoir, more will harm or ramps ten doctrine of carved stone.To provinces, then concentrated, the city a few experts research, under the national call of water conservancy, if shek mun inside and outside the one hundred multilateral moya carved stone to all save all move, whether time, money, manpower, several possible. Finally determine can only choose the shimen 10, with the doctrine of the overall relocation, moved to hanzhong museum display. But exactly what’s move, who is not in your heart.It was only fan Wenzao (1923 ~ 1983), a great expert from Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Bureau, who provided the best plan for the protection of the Stone carvings in Shimen Cliff. At that time, the migration method adopted at that time was to put a furnace in the stone gate and harden it.In six arrises steel tank, first remove the stone, again from the back of the slot to rock groove, plus iron wedge keep stone facade thickness must be separated from the mountain again. Especially the south-north classic “ode to shimen” “stone inscription” products such as large volume, high summer deep in more than two meters. Can’t damage the end especially the handwriting, if of chisel skills, it is even harder.Overall one-time can not take down, can only be divided slices, with no loss of a line of a word as a benchmark. Then draw line, make take, each square distance several words, make number, partitioned off after on-site repair wound into the box, and then in a new place holds also its original configuration. In such a carefully crafted, just had today we saw in hanzhong museum of shimen cliff spectacle.Fan Wenzao was born in Zigong, Sichuan province, and graduated from the National art college in 1946. He made great achievements in the copying of Dunhuang frescoes, and got acquainted with zhang Daqian, Xu Beihong, Chang Shuhong and other famous artists. Two years later, in 1948, he held a joint large-scale Dunhuang art exhibition in Nanjing in the name of Dunhuang Art Research Institute, in which fan Wenzao’s copying works took up one fifth.In 1950, with the cooperation of The China Artists Association and dunhuang Art Research Institute, the Dunhuang Cultural Relics Exhibition was held in The Imperial Palace in Beijing, and fan Wenzao’s copying became the main part of the painting exhibition, with a total of 280 pieces.In dunhuang fresco reproduction, shaanxi tang tomb murals aspect attainments, leading in hanzhong “shimen ten doctrine of” protection, contribute more, individual achievement, of collecting rare horse. But today, the man who knows the top after the founding of the northwest cultural relics experts is running out. If I am not sings in the chance of xi ‘an cultural consultant, I’m afraid it is hard to notice his life performance.And if it does not involve the fate of han Cliff carvings and the famous “13 stone gate products”, such as from the eastern Han Dynasty to the opening of the ramp, hanzhong Museum today; these precious stories based on the history of preservation of contemporary cultural relics, I am afraid, have long been annihilated.By “shimen ten doctrine of” the most core of the ode to shimen cliff sharpening, thought of the han dynasty carved “ode to the three” namely “ode to shimen” ode to the west narrow “the kingdom pavilion”. “ode to shimen” in shaanxi hanzhong, slightly to the kingdom pavilion “in shaanxi Yang,” ode to west narrow at into county, gansu province. It’s “ode to the three han” also called “ode to the northwest three”. “praise” is a kind of literary style.The Preface to The Book of Songs includes 31 songs of Zhou, 4 songs of Lu, and 5 songs of Shang, altogether 40 “three songs”.In ancient times, when major transportation and water conservancy projects were completed, there were commemorative texts, and “ode style” was often used to memorize and eulogize virtues.5, For example, “Praise of Shimen” is to commemorate hanzhong Tai Shou Jun zhao opened hanzhong ramp shek Gate tunnel, and in the west wall engraved “praise” to ji.To the kingdom pavilion “is in honor of HanWu 10) satrap lee rebuild plank road kingdom pavilion and engraved” ode “to remember;” ode to the west narrow, both to commemorate HanWu satrap 10 li repair narrow plank road west to benefit from the earth and the people “ode” 10) li satrap life qualities, and even the city pool five red figure is huanglong, white deer, golden harvest, wood, knot dew; and the forehead, figure, praise, title for a total of four most.Ancient “three han ode” are three major traffic citations for merit of water conservancy projects. In the first place in the language in accord with the book of songs “filialness” of “LuSong” shang “SiYan crambo to get praises of the original intention, such as ode to the west narrow” with the wood bearing dew knot Huang Longbai deer golden special graphics, etc, of course, is the purpose of the auspicious prayers. But I also have this question:”Fu” and “Ode to Xixia”, on one side and on the other, are connected to Shaanxi and Gansu by the construction of a walkway, are attributed to the same master, Li Xi-fu, official of the Wudu Capital, on one side of the inscribed inscribed inscribed stone.Since such great achievements have been made to relieve the difficulties of the steep mountains, cliffs and deep valleys in northwest China, why only heavy cliffs but not tablets?That we today for calligraphy, established, every country “ode” shall refer to moya carved stone stone steles instead of referring to the 111 famous as “ode to the three han”, not only have 6 years earlier and is located in yuanshi county in hebei province to the seal yongsan, the sharpening of si mountain praise god, angelica in such, also unearthed too late, just is in qing daoguang years, from the academic attention for a long time.”Ode to Xixia” was built in the fourth year (171) of Jianning by Emperor Ling of the Eastern Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220), 1800 years ago. It is the best book in the Cliffs of The Han Dynasty. It was discovered by chance when the woodcutter cut wood in the Northern Song Dynasty.And wrapped with vines, covering the stone surface, for thousands of years, formed a dense vines, stems and leaves woven natural protection network, nearly two thousand years can be well preserved.Tributes, 358 words, of the forehead “HuiAn west table” four words, and title 142 words, it is superior natural conditions, but can not loss; a word is waiting for us to save this not out of the classic, then god bless? Finally there is a important problem, is a calligrapher’s. In the west the throat “title, agency also has a book name” from the history of the handler, bian QiuJing word book “.When the eastern han dynasty name “bian dao” under this into county, gansu province. The han nationalities BeiBan cliff in the book to the west narrow carol will be signed QiuJing, the earliest example can be said that the history of Chinese calligraphy. And his brother revenge Fu “calligraphy work off”, also check the kingdom pavilion “full name is” HanWu satrap 10) lee chung bridge kingdom pavilion “in the analysis, and recorded” spirit is all JunLi emperor set up rather, in the analysis of falling into a bridge, Fu praise for the book “.”Fu ge,” one of the brothers selected as pall-writers, inscribed with one pall-writer, Li Xi-pall-guard, testified that Pall-writers were selected as prominent members of a han dynasty pall-writing family. None of the 400 scripts in the han dynasty were inscribed in this way.END, copyright statement, the copyright shall belong to the original, doesn’t mean we agree with the views and responsibility for their authenticity. Such as content, copyright and other issues, please contact with this net, we will delete the content in the first time! Original content for reprint please contact us. Edit 丨 norain editor | Liao Weifu reproduced from hangzhou daily art collection WeChat public number